Labor migrants, on the one hand, are the driver of the development of a number of sectors in the real sector of the economy, and on the other hand, over 2.5 million foreigners are a significant burden on the health care system. People tend to get sick or, for example, give birth, regardless of citizenship. The employees of the Eurasia Labor Dispute Resolution Assistance Center explained what kind of medical care can foreigners in Russia count on, depending on their status.
Paid or free
Today in Russia, medical care can be obtained in a state hospital or clinic, as well as in any private institution. In the first case services are free, in the second case they are provided on a commercial basis. (Public agencies also have a paid services sector, but price/quality ratio does not always work in favor of these institutions.)
To get medical care for free, you need a compulsory health insurance (compulsory medical insurance) policy. In commercial institutions, they will help with a voluntary health insurance (VHI) policy or direct payment for the bill.
Compulsory health insurance
The compulsory medical insurance policy is available to all citizens of Russia, as well as to some categories of foreign specialists working in the Russian Federation. Important! We are talking about those employees who have an employment contract with the company, since payments for treatment are made from the social insurance fund. Employers contribute in this fund for each employee. Therefore, those who work officially can apply for the compulsory medical insurance policy. For unemployed categories, money for medical care is provided in the federal budget.
In addition, foreign citizens who have issued a residence permit can receive the main medical document. These people are officially equated with Russian citizens in rights and obligations. The policy for them and their family members in the insurance company will be issued indefinitely.
Another status for foreigners that entitles free health care is a temporary stay permit. But the policy on this status is only for the duration of the stay. Refugees, for example, are also entitled to a compulsory medical insurance policy, which is valid as much as a refugee’s certificate.
Citizens of the EAEU (European-Asian Economic Union), despite the simplified border crossing, also need to find a job to obtain a policy for free medical care. By the way, their family members will not be able to apply for a compulsory medical insurance policy, but they are obliged to issue a paid VHI policy.
A person registered in the compulsory health insurance system has the right to call a doctor at home, for full treatment, including, for example, manipulations in physical and procedural rooms, as well as treatment in a hospital (including surgical operations).
What documents are needed to obtain a compulsory medical insurance policy
For different categories of foreigners, various packages of documents for the execution of a compulsory health insurance policy are required. For example, those who have issued a residence permit or temporary residence permit will need passports (birth certificates for children) and SNILS.
Refugees need to provide only a refugee certificate or a certificate of temporary asylum in the Russian Federation.
In order to draw up a medical document, you need to contact the insurance company directly.
To issue a compulsory medical insurance policy in Russia, labor migrants or tourists from the countries of the EAEU (these are Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan) must provide a passport (or other identity document), an employment contract with an employer, SNILS and a notification of migration registration. The employer must issue the policy independently.
Voluntary health insurance
All foreign citizens crossing the Russian border are obliged to obtain it. This is regulated by paragraph 5 of Article 27 of the Federal Law No. 114 of 15.08.1996. “On the procedure for leaving and entering the Russian Federation.” And this applies not only to labor migrants, but also, for example, to tourists. The cost of the document varies from three to twenty-five thousand rubles, depending on the list of insurance claims. The amount of treatment coverage under the voluntary health insurance policy is about two million rubles.
If a migrant has not registered either in the compulsory health insurance system or in the voluntary system, according to paragraph 8 of Article 18 of the Code of Administrative Violations of the Russian Federation (Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation), a fine of 2,000 to 5,000 rubles may be imposed on him for the absence of a policy from a foreign citizen. The presence of a medical policy is one of the mandatory conditions of the legal situation in Russia for people who do not have its citizenship.
Even if a foreigner is in Russia illegally or he decided, at his own risk, not to apply for a voluntary medical insurance policy, then in case of a threat to life and health, he will receive immediate help. According to paragraph 1 of part 4 of article 32 of Law No. 323-FZ, ambulance crews, firefighters or rescuers provide first aid completely free of charge.